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Dr. William Bowerman



Environmental Science & Technology 1426 Animal Science/Agricultural Engineering Building 8127 Regents Drive College Park, Maryland 20742

Professional Summary:

  • Research uses 54 years of bald eagle productivity and contaminant data to determine localized, watershed-level, as well as population level, effects caused by organochlorines and heavy metals

  • Determine sink / source effects and morphometric differences in nestlings between these spatial regions

I joined the Department of Environmental Science and Technology as Professor and Chair in May 2011. I was previously at Clemson University for 12 years as a faculty member in wildlife ecology and ecotoxicology. I specialize in the study of how stressors affect wildlife populations including environmental contaminants effects, the effects of human activities, foraging ecology, and habitat relationships. My primary species that I study is the bald eagle, but have studied other species in North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Professional Work:

  • 1993-1994    Post-Doctoral Research Associate, Michigan State University
  • 1994-1995    Principal and Chief Scientist, Eagle Environmental, Inc., Haslett, Michigan
  • 1996-1999    Director, Gale Gleason Environmental Institute, Lake Superior State University
  • 1999-2003    Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Clemson University
  • 2003-2004    Assistant Professor, Department of Forestry & Natural Resources, Clemson University
  • 2004-2008    Associate Professor, Department of Forestry & Natural Resources, Clemson University
  • 2008-2011    Professor, Department of Forestry & Natural Resources, Clemson University
  • 2011-2023    Chair, Department of Environmental Science & Technology, University of Maryland
  • 2011-            Professor, Department of Environmental Science & Technology, University of Maryland


  • Western Michigan University, 1985, B.A. Biology
  • Northern Michigan University, 1991, M.A. Biology. Thesis: “Factors Affecting Bald Eagle Reproduction in Upper Michigan.”
  • Michigan State University, 1993, Ph.D. Fisheries & Wildlife – Environmental Toxicology, Certificate: Ecology & Evolutionary Biology. Dissertation: “Regulation of Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) Productivity in the Great Lakes Basin: An Ecological and Toxicological Approach.” 

Professional Service:

Offices and Committees-Professional Organizations:

International Association of Great Lakes Research

  • Publicity Chair, 1995 Annual Meeting, East Lansing, Michigan

Natural Areas Association

  • Student Volunteer Coordinator, 1998 National Meeting
  • Session Chair, Avian Ecology Session, 1998 National Meeting

Sigma Xi-The Scientific Research Society, Clemson Chapter

  • Chair, Admissions Committee, 2003-2006

Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

  • Vice-President, Central Great Lakes Chapter, 1994-95
  • President, Central Great Lakes Chapter, 1995-96
  • Convener, Symposium on "A Current Assessment of the Effects of Environmental Contaminants on Birds", Fifth SETAC-Europe Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1995
  • Co-Chair, Program Committee, Central Great Lakes Chapter Spring Meeting, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1995
  • Co-convener, Special Symposium:  A retrospective view of avian biomonitoring and contaminant effects in the Great Lakes, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 2007
  • Science Committee, SETAC North America, 2013-

Raptor Research Foundation

  • Session Chair, General Raptor Ecology, 1994 Annual Meeting, Flagstaff, Arizona
  • Convener, Symposium on "Ecology and Toxicology of Great Lakes Bald Eagles", Duluth, MN, 1995
  • Session Chair, Symposium on "Ecology and Toxicology of Great Lakes Bald Eagles",Duluth, MN, 1995
  • Co-Convener, Symposium on "Sea Eagles", Pitlochry, Scotland, 2009
  • Session Chair, Symposium on Sea Eagles", Pitlochry, Scotland, 2009

The Wildlife Society

  • Central Director, Wildlife Toxicology Working Group,1996-97
  • Chair, Symposium: Wildlife Toxicology in the Great Lakes: A Forensic Approach, Buffalo, New York, 1998
  • Chair-Elect, Wildlife Toxicology Working Group, 2000-2001
  • Chair, Wildlife Toxicology Working Group, 2001-2003
  • Co-Chair, Symposium: Wildlife Toxicology Issues in the Northeast, Burlington, Vermont, 2003
  • Review Committee, Annual Meeting Sessions, Madison, Wisconsin, 2005
  • Chair, Honorary Membership & Special Recognition Service Award Committee, 2010

Organization Membership:

Reviewing Activities for Agencies:

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  • Reviewer, Wildlife criteria for contaminant exposure and toxicity, 1995

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

  • Technical Review, Effects of TCDD on Eagles in Maine, 2000

U.S. Forest Service

  • Technical Review, Management Activities on Bald Eagles, Manistee NF, 2000

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, Office of the Great Lakes

  • Technical Review of Agency Report, 2000

Services to local, state, and federal agencies

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  • Technical Assistance, Lake Michigan LaMP, 2000
  • Expert, Current views on Risk Assessment, Science Advisory Board, 2006

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

  • Member, Northern States Bald Eagle Recovery Team, 1994-2008

U.S. Forest Service, Hiawatha National Forest

  • Member, Bald Eagle Management Team, Hiawatha National Forest, 1986-88
  • Program Coordinator, Clear Lake Conference on Bald Eagles and Loons, 1986
  • Program Committee, Clear Lake Conference on Black Bears and Timber Wolves, 1987
  • Program Coordinator, Clear Lake Conference on Wildlife Openings, 1988
  • Program Coordinator, Clear Lake Conference on Wetlands, 1989
  • Program Committee, Clear Lake Conference on Landscape Ecology, 1995

U.S. National Park Service

  • Member, Scientific Advisory Board, Voyageurs National Park, 1995-

Michigan Department of Natural Resources

  • Forest Raptor Technical Advisory Committee, 1997-1999

NIH-Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare

  • Faculty, “IACUC Issues in Field Biology”, 2000

Charter Township of Meridian, Michigan

  • Member, Environmental Commission, 1995-96

Great Lakes Protection Fund

  • Technical Reviewer, 1997 Grants Program

International Activities:

International Joint Commission, United States and Canada

  • Co-Chair, Workshop on Environmental Results: Monitoring and Trends of Effects Caused by Persistent Toxic Substances, Windsor, Ontario, 1996
  • Member, Great Lakes Science Advisory Board, 1996-
  • Member, Ecosystem Health Working Group, 1996-2008
  • Coordinator, St. Mary’s River Remediation Review, Science Advisory Board, 1997
  • Great Lakes Science Advisory Board Representative to Annex II Committee, 1998-2002
  • Coordinator, St. Mary’s River Status Assessment Press Release, 1998.
  • Session Chair, RAP-LaMP Workshop, Biennial Meeting, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 2003
  • Great Lakes Science Advisory Board Representative to Annex II Task Force, 2003-2005
  • Session Chair, Chemical Exposure and Effects in the Great Lakes Today.  Chicago, 2005
  • Convenor, An Ecosystem Approach to Dam Removal on Great Lakes Tributaries, Windsor, Ontario, 2006
  • Expert, Consultation Meeting on Nearshore Priority, Dearborne, MI  2007
  • United States Co-Chair, Great Lakes Science Advisory Board, 2011-

Science and Engineering Research Canada

  • External Referee, Senior Canada Research Chair Grants, 2005

St. Mary’s River Binational Public Advisory Committee

  • Member, 1997-1999

Environment Canada

  • Expert, Setting Goals for Delisting the Detroit River Area of Concern, 2007

Georgian Academy of Science

  • Reviewer, Research Grant Proposals, 2010

Lake Erie Lakewide Management Plan (LaMP)

  • Member, Working Group on Wildlife Effects and Monitoring, 1996-2001

University Related Committees and Service:


Department of Environmental Toxicology, Clemson University

  • Curriculum Committee, 2000-2003
  • Chair, Curriculum Committee, 2000-2001
  • Environmental Toxicology Faculty Search Committee, 2002
  • Bylaws Committee, 2006
  • Faculty Expertise Committee, 2006

Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Clemson University

  • Curriculum Committee, Department Forestry & Natural Resources, 2003-05
  • Curriculum Committee, Department Forestry & Natural Resources, 2004-2005
  • Promotion & Tenure Committee, 2004-2007
  • Aquatic Ecology Faculty Search Committee, 2005
  • Chair, Promotion & Tenure Committee, 2006-2007
  • Chair, Post-tenure Review Committee, 2010-2011


College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sciences, Clemson University

  • Curriculum Committee, 2000-2001
  • Wildlife Assistant Cooperative Unit Leader Search Committee, 2003
  • Curriculum Committee, 2003-2005
  • Department Chair Search Committee, Forestry & Natural Resources, 2004
  • Elected Faculty Member, Search Committee for Associate Deans, 2008
  • Elected Faculty Member, Department Chair Review Committee, 2009

College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Maryland

  • Chair, Search Committee, Department Chair, Animal & Avian Sciences, 2014
  • Chair, Search Committee, Assistant Director, Natural Resources & Sea Grant, 2014

University-level Service:

Lake Superior State University

  • Environmental Institute Steering Committee, 1996-97
  • Graduate Degree Committee 1996-98
  • Morris Udahl Scholarship Committee, Chair, 1996-1999
  • Natural Resources Technology/Fisheries and Wildlife Curriculum Committee, 1996-1997
  • Aquatic Ecology Faculty Search Committee, 1997
  • Provost’s Crawford Hall of Science Renovation Committee, 1997
  • Member, Dean’s Search Committee, 1997
  • Forestry Center of Excellence, Development Committee, 1997-1999
  • Steering Committee, Gale Gleason Environmental Institute, 1998-99
  • Member, Dean’s Search Committee, 1998 

Clemson University

  • Animal Research Committee, 2001-2004
  • Chair, Animal Research Committee’s Field Studies Subcommittee, 2002-2004
  • China Center Task Force, 2003-2004
  • Academic Integrity Summit, 2004
  • University Environment Committee 2005-2010
  • Elected Faculty Member, Search Committee for Dean, CAFLS, 2005-2006
  • University Grievance Board, 2006-2008
  • Selection Committee, Class of ’39 Award for Excellence, 2007, 2008, 2009
  • Selection Committee, Centennial Professorship, 2008
  • Joint City-University Committee, 2008-2009
  • University Vending Machine Committee, 2009
  • Athletic Council, 2009-2010
  • Coalition of Intercollegiate Athletics, 2009-2010
  • Governmental Affairs Committee, 2009-2010
  • Graduation Ceremony Committee, 2009-2010
  • Academic Council, 2008-2010
  • Ombudsman Subcommittee, 2009-2011, Chair, 2010-2011
  • Honorary Degrees Committee, 2009-2011
  • Canada Center Steering Committee, 2010-2011

University Presidential Committees and Service, Clemson University

  • President’s Faculty Advisory Council, 2005-2006
  • President’s Faculty Advisory Council, 2007-2011
  • Presidential Task Force on Curriculum and General Education in Response to Budget Crisis, 2008-2009
  • President’s Cabinet, 2009-2010
  • Compensation Advisory Group, 2009-2010
  • 4 President’s Committee, 2009-2010

Faculty Senate, Clemson University

  • Faculty Senate Select Committee on PSA Reorganization, 2003-2004
  • Member, Faculty Senate Executive Advisory Board, 2005-2006
  • Senator, Elected as College Representative to Faculty Senate, 2005-2010
  • Alternate Lead Senator, CAFLS, 2005-2006
  • Chair, Faculty Senate Research Committee, 2005-200
  • Member, Faculty Senate Finance Committee, 2006-2007
  • Chair, Faculty Senate Welfare Committee, 2007-2008
  • Member, Faculty Senate Executive Advisory Board, 2007-2011
  • Vice-President/President-elect, 2008-2009
  • President, 2009-2010
  • Past-President, 2010-2011
  • Chair, Select Committee on Faculty Workload, 2010-2011

University Committees, University of Maryland, College Park

  • Council on the Environment, 2012-
  • The Honor Society of Phi Kappa Phi, President, 2012-

System Committee, University of Maryland System

  • Curriculum Restructuring Committee, Marine, Estuary, and Environmental Sciences, 2013- 

Special Administrative Assignments

  • Director, Gale Gleason Environmental Institute, Lake Superior State University, 1996-1999

Teaching, Mentoring, and Advising:


Courses Taught, Clemson University, 2006-2011

  • WFB 463, Research Experience in Wildlife, Every Semester 2006-2008 {up to 10 students}
  • WFB 861, Raptor Ecology and Management, Spring 2006 {12 students}
  • WFB 991, Dissertation Research, Every Semester, Spring 2007-Spring 2011 {1-5 students}
  • WFB 493, Bald Eagle Data Management, Spring 2007 {3 students, undergraduate research}
  • WFB 863, Environmental Education in Peru, Spring 2007 {1 student, special topics}
  • FNR 470, Creative Inquiry, Every Semester, Fall 2007-Spring 2011 {up to 15 students}
  • FNR H492, Senior Honors Research II, Fall 2008 {1 student}
  • FOR 707, Advanced Avian Techniques, Spring 2008 {8 students}
  • FNR H491, Senior Honors Research I, Spring 2008 {1 student}
  • WFB 861/WFB 493, Study Abroad: South African Ecology, Spring 2008-2011 {up to 17 students}
  • WFB 430/WFB 630, Wildlife Policy, Fall 2009-2010 {up to 45 students}
  • WFB 861, Grantsmanship, Spring 2009, 2010 {12 students}

Courses Taught at University of Maryland, College Park

  • ENST 471, Capstone I, Fall Semester 2011, 2012
  • ENST 472, Capstone II, Spring Semester 2012, 2013
  • ENST 499C, Study Abroad to South Africa, Spring 2012, 2013
  • ENST 798, Graduate Seminar, Fall 2011
  • ENST 799, Masters Thesis Research, Fall 2012, Spring 2013



  • Undergraduate Advising in Wildlife & Fisheries Biology, 12-36 students each semester, 2004-2011


Clemson University, Committee Member

  • Brian Mastin, Ph.D., Environmental Toxicology, 2000-2003
  • Rick Sherrard, Ph.D., Environmental Toxicology, 2000-2002
  • Sujin Park, Ph.D., Environmental Toxicology, 2000-2002
  • John Heatley, M.S., Environmental Toxicology, 2001-2002
  • Cynthia Sills, Ph.D., Environmental Toxicology, 2001
  • Sara Sunderg, Ph.D. Student, Environmental Toxicology, 2004-2005
  • Ryan Jones, M.S., Student, Environmental Toxicology, 2004-2006
  • Barbara Clinton, M.Ag.Ed., 2004
  • B. Maurice Duke, Ph.D., Forest Management, 2004-2007
  • Pamela Truman, M.S., Environmental Toxicology, 2005-2007
  • Odessa Sirman, M.Ag.Ed., 2005-2006
  • Beth Wrege, M.S., Wildlife & Fisheries Biology, 2005-2007
  • Christopher Chumbley, M.S. Student, Wildlife & Fisheries Biology, 2006-2007
  • Anna Tater, M.S. Student, Wildlife & Fisheries Biology, 2006-2007
  • Murali Pai, Ph.D., Wildlife & Fisheries Biology, 2007-2009
  • Elizabeth Oliver, M.Ag.Ed., 2007-2008
  • Pathratipa Sansayavichai, Ph.D., Environmental Toxicology, 2007-2009
  • Beth Wrege, Ph.D., Wildlife & Fisheries Biology, 2007-2009
  • West Bishop, M.S., Forest Management, 2008-2010
  • John Asbill, M.Ag.Ed, 2008-2010
  • Brenda Johnson, Ph.D. Student, Forest Management, 2009-2010
  • Drew Trested, Ph.D., Wildlife & Fisheries Biology, 2009-2010
  • Jason Coulter, Ph.D. Student, Wildlife & Fisheries Biology, 2010-2012
  • Jeffrey Skibins, Ph.D. Student, Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management, 2010-2012 

University of Maryland, College Park, Committee Member

  • Rebecca Lazarus, Ph.D. Student, Marine, Estuarine, and Environmental Science, 2011-
  • Tricia Rowlison, Ph.D. Student, Animal and Avian Sciences, 2012- 

University of Maryland, College Park, Dean’s Representative

  • Elise Larsen, Ph.D. Student, Biology, 2013
  • Meredith Bohannon, Ph.D. Student, Marine, Estuarine, and Environmental Science, 2013


Training International Scientists:

  • Dr. Sundaravelayutham Murugasan, 2001, Fellow, Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Agricultural Human Resources Fellowship sponsored by the Food and Agricultural Organization-United Nations, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai, India
  • Dr. Subramanian Muralidharan, 2003, Fulbright Scholar, Indo-American Environmental Leadership Program, Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology & Natural History, India
  • Neelu Sharma, 2005, Fulbright Scholar, Indo-American Environmental Leadership Program, Jammu-Kashmir State Pollution Control Board, India


Research Overview:

eagle in tree

The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is one of eight sea eagle species found worldwide. The bald eagle population in Michigan has undergone a significant recovery following the ban of the pesticide dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), and its subsequent derivatives, mainly dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE),  by the Environmental Protection Agency in the 1970’s. Population productivity and recovery however, have been uneven throughout the state of Michigan because of the higher load and persistence of contaminants in specific regions. Bald eagles are tertiary predators with a mainly piscivorous diet, making them an ideal sentinel species to assess contaminant levels in the Great Lakes Basin. Because of the tendency of organochlorine chemicals to bioaccumulate in the adipose tissue of fishes, bald eagles have been regarded as a key wildlife biomonitor in within the Great Lakes by the International Joint Commission. Average core home ranges for adult nesting bald eagles are approximately 4.9 km2, meaning foraging ranges are limited to local watersheds. Nestlings accumulate significant levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-DDE, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) in their tissues, indicative of aquatic contaminants occurring in the proximate environment. My research uses 54 years of bald eagle productivity and contaminant data to determine localized, watershed-level, as well as population level, effects caused by organochlorines and heavy metals. Eagles nesting within 8.0 km of the Great Lakes shorelines have greater PCB and p,p'-DDE concentrations, and decreased productivity rates than those nesting in more interior regions. Contaminated adults that originated from these areas may contribute to a decreased rate of recovery because of their inability to reproduce at sufficient levels to support a healthy population. Through my research, I also determine sink/ source effects and morphometric differences in nestlings between these spatial regions.

Lab Information:

The Joint Analytical Services Laboratory is directed by Dr. William Bowerman and managed by Dr. Rockie Yarwood. The JASL mission is to support the research efforts of ENST faculty and their collaborators. At the present time, the facility and its instrumentation is being utilized in support of the research efforts of ENST faculty: Dr. Stephanie LansingDr. Lance Yonkos, and Dr. William Bowerman. As our department continues to grow, the vision for JASL is one of continuing expansion and improvement of capabilities with eventual development into a strong core laboratory facility serving not only ENST, but other departments in the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources (AGNR) as well.

Joint Analytical Services Laboratory webpage 

Awards & Publications:

Awards & Honors:

  • 4-Year Army ROTC Scholarship (Early Board), 1978
  • NMU Merit Award, Northern Michigan University, 1979-83
  • Michigan Competitive Grants Scholarship, 1979-83
  • Frank Russell Conservation Scholarship Award, Michigan Waterfowl Association, 1986
  • Pryor Memorial Fund Award, 1986
  • Bald Eagle Research Award, The Eagle Foundation, 1987
  • Regional Forester's Honor Award, For Heroic Action by Quick Decisive Response to a Critical Accident, Eastern Region, USDA-Forest Service, 1989
  • Certificate of Appreciation for Quick and Decisive Response to a Critical Accident, Ottawa National Forest, 1989
  • Associate membership, Sigma Xi, Northern Michigan University Chapter, 1991
  • Certified Associate Ecologist, Ecological Society of America, 1992
  • Outstanding Young Alumni Award, Northern Michigan University, 1992
  • Pesticide Research Center Conference, Michigan State University, Best Paper, 1992
  • Graduate Student Award, Michigan State University Chapter of Sigma Xi, 1993
  • Full membership, Sigma Xi, Michigan State University Chapter, 1994
  • Certified Ecologist, Ecological Society of America, 1995
  • Diplomat & Certified Forensic Examiner, American College of Forensic Examiners, 1996
  • Certificate of Appreciation, Animal Research Committee, Clemson University, 2004
  • Certified Senior Ecologist, Ecological Society of America, 2004
  • Award of Faculty Excellence, Board of Trustees, Clemson University, 2005
  • Elective Member, American Ornithologists’ Union, 2006
  • Award of Faculty Excellence, Board of Trustees, Clemson University, 2007
  • Award of Faculty Excellence, Board of Trustees, Clemson University, 2008
  • Phi Kappa Phi, Elected as a Faculty Member, Clemson University, 2009
  • Award of Faculty Excellence, Board of Trustees, Clemson University, 2010
  • Distinguished Alumni Award, Northern Michigan University, 2012
  • Bald Eagle Person of the Year, Eagle Nature Foundation, 2014


Selected Publications:

(98 book chapters and journal publications total; only those since 2007 listed below)

  • Henshel, D., M. Aschner, N. Basu, W. Bowerman, D. Echeverria, M. Gilbertson, N. Ralston, D. Rumbold, M. Wolfe. 2007. New Bioindicators for Mercury Toxicological Assessment:  Recommendations from the First International Bioindicators Roundtable. International Bioindicators 2:183-207.
  • Lavoie ET, Wiley F, Grasman KA, Tillitt DE, Sikarskie JG, Bowerman WW. 2007. Effect of in ovo exposure to an organochlorine mixture extracted from double crested cormorant eggs (Phalacrocorax auritus) on immune function of juvenile chickens. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 53:655-661. 
  • van den Hurk, P., F.E. Wiley, E.T. Lavoie, K.A. Grasman, and W.W. Bowerman. 2007. Activity patterns of biotransformation enzymes in juvenile chickens after in ovo dosage of PCB126. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part C 146:301-307
  • Wiley, F.E., S.B. Wilde, A.H. Birrenkott, S.K. Williams, T.M. Murphy, C.P. Hope, W.W. Bowerman, and J.R. Fischer. 2007. Investigation of the link between avian vacuolar yelinopathy and a novel species of cyanobacteria through laboratory feeding trials. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 43(3):337-343 
  • Bowerman, W.W., A.L. Bryan, Jr., J.R. Robinette, J.M. Wing, F.E. Wiley, and S. Murugasan. 2007. Concentrations of p,p’-DDE in Plasma of Nestling Wood Storks from Georgia. Chemosphere 68:1506-1510.
  • Bennett, F.M., S.C. Loeb, M.S. Bunch, and W.W. Bowerman. 2008. Use and Selection of Bridges as Day Roosts by Rafinesque's Big-Eared Bats. American Midland Naturalist 160:386-399.
  • Wiley, F.E., M.J. Twiner, T.A. Leighfield, S.B. Wilde, F.M. Van Dolah, J.R. Fischer, and W.W. Bowerman. 2009. An extract of Hydrilla verticillata and associated epiphytes induces avian vacuolar myelinopathy in laboratory mallards. Environmental Toxicology 24:362-368.
  • Best, D.A., K.H. Elliott, W.W. Bowerman, M. Shieldcastle, S. Postupalsky, T.J. Kubiak, D.E. Tillitt, J.E. Elliott. 2010. Productivity, embryo and eggshell characteristics, and contaminants in bald eagles from the Great Lakes, USA, 1986 to 2000. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry 29(7):1581-1592.
  • Grubb, T.G., D.A. Delaney, W.W. Bowerman, M.R. Wierda. 2010. Golden Eagle Indifference to Heli-Skiing and Military Helicopters in Northern Utah. Journal of Wildlife Management. 74(6):1275-1285
  • Venier, M., M. Wierda, W. Bowerman, R. Hites. 2010. Flame retardants and organochlorine pollutants in bald eagle plasma from the Great Lakes Region. Chemosphere 80(10):1234-1240
  • Leith, K.F., W.W. Bowerman, M.R. Wierda, D.A. Best, T.G. Grubb, J.G. Sikarskie. 2010. A comparison of techniques for assessing central tendency in left-censored data using PCB and p,p’DDE contaminant concentrations from Michigan’s Bald Eagle Biosentinel Program. Chemosphere 80 (1):7-12. 
  • Pittman, H.T., W.W. Bowerman, L.H. Grim, T.G. Grubb, W.C. Bridges. 2011. Using Nestling Feathers to Assess Spatial and Temporal Trends of Hg in Bald Eagles, at Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA. Ecotoxicology 20:1626-1635.
  • Shrum, P.L., W.W. Bowerman, D.G. Olaechea, R. Amable.  2011.  More records of sympatry of black-faced hawk (Leucopternis melanops) and white-browed hawk (L. kuhli) in Madre De Dios, Peru. Journal of Raptor Research 45:104-105. 
  • Fuentes, L., L.J. Moore, J.H. Rodgers, Jr., W.W. Bowerman, G.K. Yarrow, W.Y Chao.  2011.  Comparative toxicity of two glyphosate formulations (Original Formulation of Roundup® and Roundup Weathermax®) to six North American larval anurans. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 30:2756-2761.
  • Moore, L.J., L. Fuentes, J.H. Rodgers, Jr., W.W. Bowerman, G.K. Yarrow, W.Y Chao.  2012.  Relative toxicity of the components of the Original Formulation of Roundup® to five North American anurans. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 78:128-133.
  • Turyk ME, Bhavsar SP, Bowerman W, Boysen E, Clark M, Diamond M, Mergler M, Pantazopoulos P, Schantz S, Carpenter DO. 2012. Risks and Benefits of Consumption of Great Lakes Fish. Environ Health Perspect 120:11-18.
  • Hill, LM, WW Bowerman, JC Roos, WC Bridges, MD Anderson. 2013. Effects of water quality changes on the phytoplankton and lesser flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor) populations at Kamfers Dam, a Saline Wetland, in Kimberley South Africa. African Journal of Aquatic Science 38(3):287-294. 
  • Haynie  RS, WW Bowerman SK Williams, JR Morrison, JM Grizzle, JM Fischer, SB Wilde. 2013. Triploid Grass Carp Susceptibility and Potential for Disease Transfer when used to Control Aquatic Vegetation in Reservoirs with Avian Vacuolar Myelinopathy. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 25:4, 252-259.
  • Fuentes, L, LJ Moore, JR Rodgers, WW Bowerman, G Yarrow, W Chao. In Press. Role of sediments in modifying the toxicity of two Roundup® formulations to six species of larval Anurans. Environmental Science and Technology.
  • Summers, CF, WW Bowerman, N Parsons, WY Chao, WC Bridges, Jr.  In Press. Lead and cadmium in the blood of nine species of seabirds, Marion Island, South Africa. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.
  • Irwin, SW, MM Beck, WW Bowerman, WC Bridges. Mass Latex Balloon Releases and Their Fate in the Environment. Submitted to Journal of Wildlife Management.
  • Wierda, MR, KF Leith, TG Grubb, JG Sikarskie, DA Best, WW Bowerman. Using bald eagles to track spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in Michigan’s Aquatic Ecosystems. Submitted to Environmental Science and Technology.
  • Pittman, HT, WW Bowerman, LH Grim, TG Grubb, WC Bridges, MR Wierda. Using nestling plasma to assess spatial and temporal concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bald eagles at Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA. Submitted to Chemosphere.
  • Simon, KL, DA Best, JG Sikarskie, HT Pittman, WW Bowerman, and TM Cooley. Cause of death and trends of recoveries of dead/injured bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in Michigan, 1987-2011. Submitted to EcoHealth.