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Gurpal Toor

Professor

Professor & Extension Specialist

Environmental Science & Technology 1426 Animal Science/Agricultural Engineering Building 8127 Regents Drive College Park, Maryland 20742

Expertise

  • Nutrient Management
  • Water Quality
  • Biogeochemistry
  • soil fertility
  • Soil Chemistry
  • Extension Specialist
  • Extension

I am a Professor & Extension Specialist of Nutrient Management and Water Quality in the Department of Environmental Science and Technology. From 2007 to 2017, I was Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, and Full Professor in the Department of Soil and Water Sciences at the University of Florida. After receiving my doctoral degree in Environmental Soil Science from the Lincoln University, New Zealand, I was trained as a Postdoctoral Researcher in the Plant and Soil Science department at the University of Delaware and as a Research Scientist in the Biological and Agricultural Engineering department at the University of Arkansas. I currently serve as Academic Editor of PLoS ONE journal, Section Editor of Current Pollution Reports journal, and have served as Associate Editor of the Journal of Environmental Quality. I’m Chair of an international professional organization (SERA-17) of researchers working to minimize nutrient losses from agriculture. I serve as a member of the Science-Policy Committee and Book and Multimedia Committee of Crop, Agronomy, and Soil Science Societies of America. I have also served as Division Chair of Soil Science Society of America.  

The over-arching goal of my program is to conduct basic and applied research and extension to (1) increase understanding of environmental issues as related to agricultural and natural ecosystems and (2) solve environmental problems related to nutrient pollution in the Chesapeake Bay.

PROFESSIONAL WORK

  • Section Editor, Current Pollution Reports (Springer) journal (2016-current)

  • Academic Editor, PLoS ONE (2018-current)

  • Editorial Board, Water (2020-current)

  • Associate Editor, Journal of Environmental Quality, 2008-2014

  • Member, Science-Policy Committee of Soil Science Society of America (2020-current)

  • Member, ASA-CSSA-SSSA Book and Multi-Media Publishing Committee (2014-present).

  • Chair, Urban & Anthropogenic Soils Division of Soil Science Society of America (Jan-Dec 2014)

  • Chair, Nominations Committee for Urban & Anthropogenic Soils Division Officers of Soil Science Society of America (Jan-Dec 2014).

  • Member, Nominations for Soil Science Society of America President-Elect Committee (Jan-Dec 2014).

  • Member, SSSA Annual meeting Program Planning Committee (Jan-Dec 2014)

  • Past Chair, Urban & Anthropogenic Soils Division of Soil Science Society of America (Jan-Dec 2015)

  • Past Chair, Nominations Committee for Urban & Anthropogenic Soils Division Officers of Soil Science Society of America (Jan-Dec 2015).

  • Member, Soil Science Society of America S594 Urban Soils Committee (2012-2013)

  • Member, American Society of Agronomy K-12 Committee (2010-2012)

RESEARCH

The over-arching goal of research conducted by the group is to develop solutions to manage nutrients in plant root-zone and protect water quality. Our current research efforts are focused on gaining better understanding of processes, mechanisms, and pathways of nitrogen and phosphorus flows in soil-plant-water systems. Nitrogen and phosphorus are not only critical nutrients that affect agricultural crop productivity but are pollutants when they reach Chesapeake Bay leading to water quality issues such as eutrophication, onset of algal blooms, and hypoxia. The outcomes of this research will sustain agricultural production and reduce environmental impacts on water bodies in Maryland and Chesapeake Bay.

The specific objectives of my research program are to:

  • Develop, evaluate, and refine innovative tools using nutrient management principles to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of water bodies while using waste materials (manures, biosolids) and commercial fertilizers.

  • Investigate mechanisms and processes controlling release and transport of nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural landscape to drainage ditches, streams, and rivers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

The following research projects are addressing nitrogen and phosphorus issues in the region:

Managing Nitrogen in Agricultural Production Systems to Optimize Efficiency and Reduce Losses. This project investigates the behavior of nitrogen in crop production systems and connected water bodies. Innovative and transformative approaches that keep nitrogen in the plant-root zone and minimize offsite losses are needed to meet agricultural production and environmental quality goals.

Manipulating Phosphorus in the Soil-Plant-Water Continuum. This project addresses long-standing issues of phosphorus accumulation in soils and losses to water bodies. To optimize and sustain crop production systems in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, new solutions to reduce legacy soil phosphorus levels, phosphorus leaching, and phosphorus transport to surface waters are needed.

Assessing the Effectiveness of Soil Health Practices in Enhancing Soil Organic Carbon. The link between soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil health underpins two of humanities greatest challenges––providing food security and agricultural sustainability to an increasing global population, and mitigating global climate change, for which soil C sequestration on agricultural lands can play a key role. This linkage is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of developing and implementing new conservation and regenerative management practices. At the state level in Maryland, the legislation passed a bill in 2017 for promotion of soil health programs and practices (http://mgaleg.maryland.gov/2017RS/fnotes/bil_0003/hb1063.pdf). This policy defined a need in Maryland to develop local capacity to measure and track soil C and other soil health metrics for the successful implementation of these programs. The goal of this project is to provide this capacity and strengthen the science.

Research Publications (Peer-reviewed articles: 93)

  • For a complete and updated publication list, consult Google Scholar
  • For obtaining PDF copies of publications, consult ResearchGate

*Graduate student; ** Postdoctoral researcher/scientist

  1. *Jani, J., M. Lusk, Y. Yang, & G.S. Toor. 2020. Wet season nitrogen export from a residential stormwater pond. PLoS ONE, 15 (4): e0230908.
  2. * Kalev, S. & G.S. Toor. 2020. Concentrations and loads of dissolved and particulate organic carbon in urban stormwater runoff. Water, 12 (4), 1031.
  3. *Jani, J., Y. Yang, M. Lusk, & G.S. Toor. 2020. Composition of nitrogen in urban residential stormwater runoff: variation in concentrations, loads, and source characterization of nitrate and organic nitrogen. PLoS ONE, 15(2): e0229715. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0229715
  4. *Lusk, M, G.S. Toor, & P. Inglett. 2020. Organic nitrogen in residential stormwater runoff: Implications for stormwater management in urban watersheds. Science of the Total Environment, 707. 135962. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135962
  5. *Rodríguez-Jorquera, I. A., R. C. Colli-Dula, K. Kroll, B.M. Jayasinghe, M.V.P. Marco, C. Silva-Sanchez, G. S. Toor, & N.D. Denslow. 2019. Blood transcriptomics analysis of fish exposed to perfluoro alkyls substances: Assessment of a non-lethal sampling technique for advancing aquatic toxicology research. Environmental Science & Technology, 53: 1441–1452. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.8b03603
  6. **Yang, Y. & G.S. Toor. 2018. Stormwater runoff driven phosphorus transport in an urban residential catchment: Implications for protecting water quality in urban watersheds. Scientific Reports, 8: 11681. DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-29857-x
  7. *Jani, J., G.S. Toor. 2018. Composition, sources, and bioavailability of nitrogen in a longitudinal gradient from freshwater to estuarine waters. Water Research, 137: 344–354.
  8. *Lusk, M.G., G.S. Toor, & P.W. Inglett. 2018. Characterization of dissolved organic nitrogen in leachate from a newly established and fertilized turfgrass. Water Research, 131: 52­–61.
  9. **Dhaliwal, S.S., G.S. Toor, S. Newman, & T.Z. Osborne. 2018. Trace metals in the soils of Water Conservation Area of Florida Everglades: consideration for ecosystem restoration. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 18: 342-351. DOI: 10.1007/s11368-016-1459-5.
  10. *Kalev, S.D. & Toor, G.S. 2018. The Composition of Soils and Sediments. In Torok, B. and T. Dransfield, eds., Green Chemistry: An Inclusive Approach. 1st Edition. Elsevier, pp 339–357.
  11. *Darre, N.C, G.S. Toor. 2018. Desalination of water: a review. Current Pollution Reports. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40726-018-0085-9 
  12. *Rodríguez-Jorquera, I., P. Siroski, W. Espejo, J. Nimptsc, S. Woelfl, P.G. Choueri, R.B. Choueri, C. Moraga, M. Mora, & G.S. Toor. 2017. Latin American Protected Areas: Protected from Chemical Pollution? Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 13:360–370. DOI: 10.1002/ieam.1839.
  13. *Rodríguez-Jorquera, I, N. Vitale, L. Garner, C. Galbán, N. Duque-Wilckens, N, & G.S. Toor. 2017. Contamination of the Upper Class: Occurrence and Effects of Chemical Pollutants in Terrestrial Top Predators. Current Pollution Reports, 3: 206-219
  14. *Lusk, M.G., G.S. Toor, Y. Yang, S. Mechtensimer, M. De, & T. Obreza. 2017. A review of fate and transport of nitrogen, phosphorus, pathogens, and trace organic chemicals in septic systems. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science & Technology. 47: 455–541. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10643389.2017.1327787
  15. *Lusk, M.G. & G.S. Toor. 2017. Optimizing Hydrologic Properties of Urban Soils. In Lal, R. and B.A. Stewart, eds., Advances in Soil Science: Urban Soils. CRC Press, pp 199–214.
  16. **Yang, Y., G.S. Toor, P.C. Wilson, & C.F. Williams. 2017. Micropollutants in groundwater from septic systems: Transformations, transport mechanisms, and human health risk assessment. Water Research. 123: 258–267. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2017.06.054
  17. Toor, G.S., M.L. Occhipinti, Y. Yang, T. Majcherek, D. Haver, & L. Oki. 2017. Managing urban runoff in residential neighborhoods: nitrogen and phosphorus in lawn irrigation driven runoff. PLoS ONE12 (6), e0179151. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179151
  18. *De, M. & G.S. Toor. 2017. Nitrogen transformations in the mounded drainfields of drip dispersal and gravel trench septic systems. Ecological Engineering, 102: 352–360. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.02.039
  19. **Yang, Y. & G.S. Toor. 2017. Sources and mechanisms of nitrate and orthophosphate transport in urban stormwater from residential catchments. Water Research, 112:176–184. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2017.01.039.
  20. *Mechtensimer, S. & G.S. Toor. 2017. Septic systems contribution to phosphorus in shallow groundwater: Field-scale studies using conventional drainfield designs. PLoS ONE, 12 (1): e0170304. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170304
  21. *Colon, B. & G.S. Toor. 2016. A review of uptake and translocation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products by food crops irrigated with treated wastewater. Advances in Agronomy, 140:75–100. DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.07.001.
  22. **Yang, Y., G.S. Toor, P.C. Wilson, & C.F. Williams. 2016. Septic systems as hot-spots of pollutants in the environment: Fate and mass balance of micropollutants in septic drainfields. Science of the Total Environment, 566–567:1535–1544. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.06.043
  23. *Mechtensimer, S. & G.S. Toor. 2016. Fate, mass balance, and transport of phosphorus in the septic system drainfields. Chemosphere, 159:153­­–158. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.05.084.
  24. *Lusk, M.G. & G.S. Toor. 2016. Biodegradability and molecular composition of dissolved organic nitrogen in urban stormwater runoff and outflow water from a stormwater retention pond. Environmental Science & Technology, 50:3391–3398DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b05714. 
  25. *Lusk, M.G. & G.S. Toor. 2016. Dissolved organic nitrogen in urban streams: biodegradability and molecular composition studies. Water Research, 96:225–235. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2016.03.060.
  26. *Rodriguez-Jorquera, I., C. Silva-Sanchez, M. Strynar, N.D. Denslow, & G.S. Toor. 2016. Footprints of urban micro-pollution in protected areas: investigating the longitudinal distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances in wildlife preserves. PLoS ONE, 11(2): e0148654. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148654.
  27. **Yang, Y. & G.S. Toor. 2016. δ15N and δ18O reveal the sources of nitrate-nitrogen in urban residential stormwater runoff. Environmental Science & Technology, 50: 2881–2889. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b05353. 
  28. *De, M. & G.S. Toor. 2016. Mass balance of water and nitrogen in the mounded drainfield of a drip-dispersal septic system. Journal of Environmental Quality, 45:1392–1399. DOI: 10.2134/jeq2016.02.0043.
  29. Toor, G.S. & J.T. Sims. 2016. Phosphorus leaching in soils amended with animal manures generated with modified diets. Journal of Environmental Quality, 45:1–7. DOI: 10.2134/jeq2015.10.0542.
  30. *De, M. & G.S. Toor. 2016. High removal of effluent-borne nitrogen with multiple external electron donors in the engineered drainfield of an advanced septic system. Journal of Environmental Quality, 45:1874–1882. DOI: 10.2134/jeq2016.06.0215.
  31. Toor, G.S., & J.T. Sims. 2015. Managing phosphorus leaching in mid-Atlantic soils: importance of legacy sources. Vadose Zone Journal. 14: DOI:10.2136/vzj2015.08.0108.
  32. **Zhan, F., He, Y., Li, T., Yang, Y.Y., Toor, G.S. & Zhao, Z. 2015. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in a dark septate endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 22:17897-17905.
  33. *Rodriguez-Jorquera, I., Kroll,K.J., Toor, G.S.  & Denslow, N.D. 2015. Transcriptional and physiological response of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to urban waters entering into wildlife protected areas. Environmental Pollution. 199: 155-165. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2015.01.021.
  34. *De, M. & G.S. Toor. 2015. Fate of effluent-borne nitrogen in the mounded drainfield of an onsite wastewater treatment system. Vadose Zone Journal. DOI: 10.2136/vzj2015.07.0096.
  35. **Yang, Y., Toor, G.S. & Williams, C.F. 2015. Pharmaceuticals and organochlorine pesticides in sediments of an urban river in Florida, USA. Journal of Soils and Sediments DOI: 10.1007/s11368-015-1077-7
  36. **Yang, Y. & Toor, G.S. 2015. Fate of nutrients, trace metals, bacteria, and pesticides in nursery recycled water. Journal of Water Resource and Protection.7:293-299. DOI:10.4236/jwarp.2015.74023.
  37. **Zhan, F., He, Y., Li, T., Yang, Y.Y., Toor, G.S. & Zhao, Z. 2015. Tolerance and antioxidant response of a dark septate endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila, to cadmium stress. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 94: 96-102. DOI. 10.1007/s00128-014-1401-8.
  38. **Filipovic, V., Toor, G.S., Ondrasek, G. & Kodesova, R. 2015. Modeling water flow and nitrate-nitrogen transport on future golf courses under turfgrass. Journal of Soils and Sediments. 15: 1847-1859. DOI 10.1007/s11368-014-0980-7.
  39. **Wang, H.Y., H. Wang, L. Li Tang, Y. H. Dong, L. Zhao, & G.S. Toor. 2014. Sorption characteristics of cyromazine and its metabolite melamine in typical agricultural soils of China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 21: 979-985.
  40. Toor, G.S., L. Han, & C.D. Stanley. 2013. Temporal variability in water quality parameters-a case study of drinking water reservoir in Florida, USA. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 185: 4305-4320.
  41. **Wang, H., Y. Dong, Y. Yang, G.S. Toor, & X. Zhang. 2013.  Changes in heavy metal contents in animal feeds and manures in an intensive animal production region of China. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 25: 2435-2442.
  42. **Carey, R.O., G. Hochmuth, C.J. Martinez, T.H. Boyer, M.D. Dukes, G.S. Toor, & J.L. Cisar. 2013. Evaluating nutrient impacts in urban watersheds: Challenges and research opportunities. Environmental Pollution. 173:138-149.
  43. **Carey, R.O., G. Hochmuth, C.J. Martinez, T.H. Boyer, V.D. Nair, M.D. Dukes, G.S. Toor, A.L. Shober, J.L. Cisar, L.E. Trenholm, & J.B. Sartain. 2012. Regulatory and resource management practices for urban watersheds: The Florida experience. HORTTECHNOLOGY. 22: 418-429.
  44. *Khare, Y.P., C.J. Martinez, & G.S. Toor. 2012. Water quality and land use changes in the Alafia and Hillsborough river watersheds, Florida, USA. Journal of American Water Resources Association. 48:1276-1293.
  45. *Pannu, M.W., G.S. Toor, G.A. O’Connor, & P.C. Wilson. 2012. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of biosolids-borne triclosan in food crops. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry. 31: 2130-2137.
  46. *Pannu, M.W., G.A. O'Connor, & G.S. Toor.  2012.  Toxicity and bioaccumulation of biosolids-borne triclosan in terrestrial organisms.  Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry.  31:646-653.
  47. *Chahal, M.K., G.S. Toor, & B.M. Santos. 2012 Chemical characterization of tomato industry wastewater, Florida, United States. Journal of Water Resource and Protection. 4:107-114.
  48. *Hagan, D. C. Dobbs, N. Timilsina, F. Escobedo, G.S.Toor, & M. Andreu. 2012. Anthropogenic effects on the physical and chemical properties of subtropical coastal urban soils. Soil Use and Management. 28:78-88.
  49. **Carey, R.O., G. Hochmuth, C.J. Martinez, T.H. Boyer, V.D. Nair, M.D. Dukes, G.S. Toor, A.L. Shober, J.L. Cisar, L.E. Trenholm, & J.B. Sartain. 2012.  A Review of Turfgrass Fertilizer Management Practices: Implications for Urban Water Quality. HORTTECHNOLOGY. 22: 280-291.
  50. *Waria, M., G.A. O’Connor, & G.S. Toor. 2011. Biodegradation of triclosan in biosolids-amended soils. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 30:2488-2496.
  51. *Chahal, M.K., G.S. Toor, P. Nkedi-Kizza, & B.M. Santos. 2011. Effect of tomato packinghouse wastewater on phosphorus and cation leaching in a spodosol. Journal of Environmental Quality. 40:999–1009.
  52. Abd-Elrahman, A., M. Croxton, R. Pande-Chettri, G.S. Toor, S. Smith, & J. Hill. 2011. In-situ estimation of water quality parameters in freshwater aquaculture ponds using hyperspectral imaging system. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. 60:463–472.
  53. *Chahal, M.K. & G.S. Toor. 2011. Trace metal leaching in a spodosol  irrigated with tomato packinghouse wastewater. Soil Use and Management. 27:480-490.
  54. *Chahal, M.K., G.S. Toor, & P. Brown. 2010. Trace metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urbanized area of Florida. Soil and Sediment Contamination. 19:419–435.
  55. *Banger, K., G.S. Toor, T. Chirenje, & L. Ma, 2010. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban soils of different land uses in Miami, Florida.  Soil and Sediment Contamination. 19: 231–243.
  56. *Banger, K., G.S. Toor, A. Biswas, S.S. Sidhu, & K. Sudhir. 2010. Soil organic carbon fractions after 16-years of applications of fertilizers and organic manure in a Typic Rhodalfs in semi-arid tropics. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. 86: 391–399.
  57. He, Z., H. Zhang, G.S. Toor, Z. Dou, C.W. Honeycutt, & B.E. Haggard. 2010. Phosphorus distribution in sequentially extracted fractions of biosolids, poultry litter, and granulated products. Soil Science. 175: 154–161.
  58. Stanley, C.D. & G.S. Toor. 2010. Florida commercial horticultural production:  constraints limiting water and nutrient use efficiency. HortTechnology. 20: 89–93.
  59. Toor, G.S. 2009. Enhancing phosphorus availability in low-phosphorus soils by using poultry manure and commercial fertilizer.  Soil Science. 174:358–364.
  60. Toor, G.S. & B.E. Haggard. 2009.  Phosphorus and trace metal dynamics in soils amended with poultry litter and granulates.  Soil Use & Management.  25:409–418.
  61. *Banger, K., S.S. Kukal, G.S. Toor, & K. Sudhir, & T. Hanumanthraju. 2009. Impact of long-term additions of chemical fertilizers and farm yard manure on carbon and nitrogen sequestration under rice-cowpea cropping system in semi-arid tropics. Plant and Soil. 318: 27–35.
  62. Toor, G.S., R.D. Harmel, B.E. Haggard, & G. Schmidt. 2008. Evaluation of regression methodology with low-frequency water quality sampling to estimate constituent loads for ephemeral watersheds in Texas.  Journal of Environmental Quality. 37:1847–1854.
  63. Toor, G.S., B.E. Haggard, & A.M. Donoghue. 2007. Water extractable trace elements in poultry litters and granulated products. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 16:351–360.
  64. Toor, G.S., B.E. Haggard, M.S. Reiter, T.C. Daniel, & A.M. Donoghue. 2007. Phosphorus solubility in poultry litters and granulates: influence of litter treatments and extraction ratios. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. 50:533–542.
  65. He, Z., B.J. Cade-Menun, G.S. Toor, A. Fortuna, C.W. Honeycutt, & J.T. Sims. 2007. Comparison of phosphorus forms in wet and dried animal manures by solution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and enzymatic hydrolysis. Journal of Environmental Quality. 36:1086–1095.
  66. Kleinman, P.J., D. Sullivan, A. Wolf, R.C. Brandt, Z. Dou, H.A. Elliott, J. Kovar, A.B. Leytem, R.O. Maguire, P. Moore, L. Saporito, A.N. Sharpley, A.L. Shober, J.T. Sims, J.P. Toth, G.S. Toor, H. Zhang, & T. Zhang. 2007. Selection of a water extractable phosphorus test for manure and biosolids as an indicator of runoff loss potential. Journal of Environmental Quality. 36:1357–1367.
  67. Toor, G.S., B.E. Haggard, S.M. Williamson, & A.M. Donoghue. 2007. Less environmental effects from granulated litter. World Poultry. 23:26–27.
  68. Toor, G.S., S. Hunger, J.D. Peak, J.T. Sims, & D.L. Sparks. 2006. Advances in the characterization of phosphorus in organic wastes: environmental and agronomic applications. Advances in Agronomy. 89:1–72.
  69. He, Z., G.S. Toor, C.W. Honeycutt, & J.T. Sims. 2006. An enzymatic hydrolysis approach for characterizing labile phosphorus forms in dairy manure under mild assay conditions. Bioresource Technology. 97:1660–1668.
  70. Toor, G.S., B.J. Cade-Menun, & J.T. Sims. 2005. Establishing a linkage between phosphorus forms in dairy diets, feces, and manures. Journal of Environmental Quality. 34:1380–1391.
  71. Toor, G.S., J.D. Peak, & J.T. Sims. 2005. Phosphorus speciation in broiler litter and turkey manure produced from modified diets. Journal of Environmental Quality. 34:687–697.
  72. Toor, G.S., L.M. Condron, B.J. Cade-Menun, H.J. Di, & K.C. Cameron. 2005. Preferential phosphorus leaching from an irrigated grassland soil. European Journal of Soil Science. 56:155–167.
  73. Toor, G.S., J.T. Sims, and Z. Dou. 2005. Reducing phosphorus in dairy diets improves farm nutrient balances and decreases the risk of nonpoint pollution of surface and ground waters. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment. 105:401–411.
  74. Verma, V.K., L.B. Patel, G.S. Toor, P.K. Sharma, & V. Singh. 2005. Dynamics and spatial distribution of soluble salts in ground waters with special reference to their suitability for irrigation in Faridkot District of Punjab, India.  Ecology, Environment and Conservation. 11:119–122.
  75. Verma, V.K., L.B. Patel, G.S. Toor, & P.K. Sharma. 2005. Spatial distribution of macronutrients in soils of arid tract of Punjab, India. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 7:285–297.
  76. Toor, G.S., L.M. Condron, H.J. Di, K.C. Cameron, & J.T. Sims. 2004. Impact of farm dairy effluent application on amounts and forms of phosphorus loss from irrigated grassland. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research. 47:479–490.
  77. Toor, G.S., L.M. Condron, H.J. Di, & K.C. Cameron. 2004. Seasonal fluctuations in phosphorus loss by leaching from a free draining grassland soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 68:1429–1436.
  78. Toor, G.S., L.M. Condron, H.J. Di, K.C. Cameron, & J.T. Sims. 2004. Assessment of phosphorus leaching losses from a free draining grassland soil. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. 69:169–184. 
  79. Verma, V.K., P.K. Sharma, V. Singh, L.B. Patel, & G.S. Toor. 2004. Hydrochemical facies of ground waters of Southwestern Punjab, India in relation to their suitability for irrigation. Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences. 6:379–381.
  80. Thind, H.S., C.L. Arora, & G.S. Toor. 2004. Nutrients return through leaf litter and their relations with poplar growth under different treatments of N, irrigation and inter-cropping. Indian Journal of Agroforestry. 62: 41–45.
  81. Toor, G.S., L.M. Condron, H.J. Di, K.C. Cameron, & B.J. Cade-Menun. 2003. Characterization of organic phosphorus in leachate from a grassland soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry. 35:1317–1323.
  82. Verma, V.K., L.B. Patel, P.K. Sharma, G.S. Toor, & V. Singh. 2003. Evaluation, characterization and management of soil - water related constraints for sustainable agriculture: an integrated approach using remote sensing and GIS. International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. 34:280–283.
  83. Sinaj, S., C. Stamm, G.S. Toor, L.M. Condron, T. Hendry, H.J. Di, K.C. Cameron, & E. Frossard. 2002. Phosphorus exchangeability and leaching losses from two grassland soils. Journal of Environmental Quality. 31:319–330.
  84. Bahl, G.S. & G.S. Toor. 2002. Influence of poultry manure on phosphorus availability and the standard phosphate requirement of crop estimated from quantity–intensity relationships in different soils. Bioresource Technology. 85:317–322.
  85. Patel, L.B., V.K. Verma, G.S. Toor, & P.K. Sharma. 2001. Ground water quality for irrigation: Its assessment and management in District Mansa, Punjab (India). Ecology, Environment and Conservation. 7:315–318.
  86. Patel, L.B., V.K. Verma, G.S. Toor, & P.K. Sharma. 2000. Beneficial plant nutrient supply from ground waters of arid tract of Punjab.  Ecology, Environment and Conservation. 6:105–108.
  87. Patel, L.B., V.K. Verma, G.S. Toor, & P.K. Sharma. 2000. Hydrochemistry of ground waters of southern Punjab, India in relation to their suitability for irrigation.  Ecology, Environment and Conservation. 6:179–183.
  88. Verma, V.K., L.B. Patel, P.K. Sharma, G.S. Toor, & C. Singh. 2000. Integrated approach for evaluation, characterisation and management of soil and water related constraints in arid environment of Punjab, India. Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences. 2:43–50.
  89. Bahl, G.S. & G.S. Toor. 1999. Efficiency of P utilization by sunflower grown on residual P fertility. Bioresource Technology. 67:97–100.
  90. Toor, G.S. & G.S. Bahl. 1999. Kinetics of phosphate desorption from different soils as influenced by application of poultry manure and fertilizer phosphorus and its uptake by soybean. Bioresource Technology. 69:117–121.
  91. Toor, G.S. & G.S. Bahl. 1997.  Effect of poultry manure addition and phosphorus fertilization on phosphorus adsorption and desorption pattern of soils. Ecological Agriculture: Towards Sustainable Development, Center for Research in Rural and Industrial Development, Chandigarh, India, pp.72-98.
  92. Toor, G.S., G.S. Bahl, & A.C. Vig. 1997. Pattern of P availability in different soils as assessed by different adsorption equations. Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science. 45:719–723.
  93. Toor, G.S. & G.S. Bahl. 1997. Effect of solitary and integrated use of poultry manure and fertilizer phosphorus on the dynamics of P availability in different soils. Bioresource Technology. 62:25–28.

EXTENSION

The overall goal of my extension program is to sustain agricultural production and improve the water quality in water bodies in Maryland and Chesapeake Bay by educating, informing, and empowering stakeholders. These efforts will improve stakeholder’s decision-making ability with regard to crop production management practices in the region.

Our group extends knowledge generated from research to educate farmers, county extension faculty, environmental groups, local and state government agencies, policy makers, and citizens about ways to sustain agriculture and protect water quality in the Chesapeake Bay. Information used in this program is synthesized from the research conducted in the group and in collaborations with colleagues from the region. The knowledge and awareness of critical soil processes that drive nutrient cycling, transformations, and loss among farmers, local, state, and federal governmental agencies, environmental groups, and citizens will lead to better management of nutrients in the agricultural production systems and decrease the risk of losses to protect and restore water quality in the Chesapeake Bay.

The specific objectives of my Extension program are to:

  1. Provide statewide leadership and guidance to farmers, commodity groups, stakeholders, environmental groups, and state and federal agencies on nutrient management and water quality connections in the Chesapeake Bay.

  1. Develop cost-effective and innovative tools and practices to manage nitrogen and phosphorus in the plant root-zone and prevent water quality impairment in the Chesapeake Bay

Extension Publications (total: 34)

Featured Magazine Article (2)

  1. Toor, G.S. & Sims, J.T. 2016. Managing legacy and new sources of phosphorus to reduce leaching in mid-Atlantic soils. Crops and Soils. September–October Issue: 40–47. doi:10.2134/cs2016.49.0512
  2. Bartens, J., N. Basta, S. Brown, C. Cogger, B. Dvorak, B. Faucette, P. Groffman, G. Hettairachchi, K. McIvor, R. Pouyat, G.S. Toor, & J. Urban. 2012. Soils in the City: A Look at Soils in Urban Areas. CSA News. 57 (Issue 8): 4-13. Published by CSSA-SSSA-ASA. Available online at: https://www.agronomy.org/files/publications/csa-news/soils-in-the-city.pdf

Extension Publications (29):

  1. **Yang, Y., Rodriguez-Jorquera, I. & G.S. Toor. 2015. Contaminants in the Urban Environment: Microplastics. University of Florida– IFAS, Gainesville, FL.  http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss649
  2. *Rodriguez-Jorquera, I., Yang, Y. & G.S. Toor. 2015. Contaminants in the Urban Environment: Bisphenol-A. University of Florida– IFAS, Gainesville, FL.  http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss648
  3. **Yang, Y. & G.S. Toor. 2015. Contaminants in the Urban Environment: Dioxins. University of Florida– IFAS, Gainesville, FL. https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss642
  4. **Yang, Y. & G.S. Toor. 2014. Contaminants in the Urban Environment: Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products-Part 1. University of Florida– IFAS, Gainesville, FL.  http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss631
  5. **Yang, Y. & G.S. Toor. 2014. Contaminants in the Urban Environment: Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products-Part 2. University of Florida– IFAS, Gainesville, FL.  http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss632
  6. *Rodriguez-Jorquera, I. & G.S. Toor. 2014. Contaminants in the Urban Environment: Perfluoroalkyl Substances. University of Florida– IFAS, Gainesville, FL.  http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss633
  7. *Rodriguez-Jorquera, I. & G.S. Toor. 2014. Contaminantes en el Medio Ambiente Urbano: Los Perfluoroalquilos. University of Florida– IFAS, Gainesville, FL.  http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss644
  8. Shober, A.L., C. Wiese, & G.S. Toor. 2013. Preplant soil assessment for new residential landscapes in Florida. University of Florida– IFAS, Gainesville, FL.  http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss534
  9. Toor, G.S. M.K. Chahal, & B.M. Santos. 2012. Solutions for managing tomato culls in Florida tomato packinghouses. University of Florida– IFAS, Gainesville, FL.  http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss572
  10. Toor, G.S. M.K. Chahal, & B.M. Santos. 2012. Solutions for managing wastewater in Florida tomato packinghouses. University of Florida– IFAS, Gainesville, FL.  http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss573
  11. *Winans, K., S. Speas-Frost, M. Jerauld, M. Clark, & G.S. Toor. 2012. Small-scale natural wastewater treatment systems: principles and regulatory framework. University of Florida-IFAS, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss566
  12. Toor, G.S. & M. Lusk. 2011. Reclaimed Water Use in the Landscape: What’s in reclaimed water and where does it go?  University of Florida– IFAS, Gainesville, FL.  http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss542
  13. Toor, G.S. & M. Lusk. 2011. Reclaimed Water Use in the Landscape: Constituents of concern in reclaimed water. University of Florida– IFAS, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss543
  14. Toor, G.S. & M. Lusk. 2011. Reclaimed Water Use in the Landscape: Managing salinity, sodicity, and specific ion toxicity in reclaimed water irrigated sites. University of Florida– IFAS, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss545
  15. Toor, G.S. & M. Lusk. 2011. Reclaimed Water Use in the Landscape: Understanding landscape irrigation water quality tests. University of Florida– IFAS, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss546
  16. Toor, G.S. & M. Lusk. 2011. Reclaimed Water Use in the Landscape: Frequently asked questions about reclaimed water. University of Florida– IFAS, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss544
  17. Toor, G.S., M. Lusk, & T. Obreza. 2011. Onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems:  overview. University of Florida– IFAS, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss549
  18. Toor, G.S., M. Lusk, & T. Obreza. 2011. Onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems:  nitrogen. University of Florida– IFAS, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss550
  19. *Lusk, M., G.S. Toor, & T. Obreza. 2011. Onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems: phosphorus. University of Florida– IFAS, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss551
  20. *Lusk, M., G.S. Toor, & T. Obreza. 2011. Onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems: bacteria and protozoa. University of Florida– IFAS, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss552
  21. *Lusk, M., G.S. Toor, & T. Obreza. 2011. Onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems: viruses. University of Florida– IFAS, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss553
  22. Toor, G.S., M. Lusk, & T. Obreza. 2011. Onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems:  trace organic chemicals. University of Florida– IFAS, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss554
  23. Martinez, C., M.W. Clark, G.S. Toor, & G.J. Hochmuth. 2011. Accounting for nutrients in reclaimed water. University of Florida – IFAS, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae479
  24. *Hagan, D., F. Escobedo, G.S. Toor, H. Mayer, J. Klein, & C. Dobbs. 2010. Soil bulk density and organic matter in urban Miami-Dade county, Florida. University of Florida – IFAS, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss537
  25. *Hagan, D., F. Escobedo, G.S. Toor, C. Dobbs, & M. Andreu. 2010. Key physical and chemical properties of Tampa’s urban soils. University of Florida – IFAS, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss536
  26. Toor, G.S. & D. Rainey. 2009. History and current status of reclaimed water use in Florida. University of Florida– IFAS, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss520
  27. Toor, G.S., & A.L. Shober. 2008. Soils and fertilizers for Master Gardeners: Soil organic matter and organic amendments. SL273/MG454. University of Florida – IFAS, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/MG454
  28. Shober, A.L., & G.S. Toor. 2008. Soils and fertilizers for Master Gardeners: Urban soils and their management issues. SL276/MG456. University of Florida – IFAS, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/MG456
  29. Sartain, J.B., L.T. Trenholm, E.F. Gilman, T.A. Obreza, & G.S. Toor. 2008. Frequently asked questions about landscape fertilization for Florida-friendly landscaping ordinances. ENH1115/WQ143. University of Florida – IFAS, Gainesville, FL. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/WQ143

Other Extension/Teaching  Publications–Peer reviewed (3)

  1. Toor, G.S., R.O. Maguire, & J.T. Sims, J.T. 2004. Grazing Management.  In Phosphorus Best Management Practices, Southern Extension Research Activity–Information Exchange Group. http://www.sera17.ext.vt.edu//Documents/BMP_grazing_management.pdf
  2. Hyde, J.E., & G.S. Toor. 2004. Where in the world is hydra electron? Lesson plan for K-8 grades. http://ag.udel.edu/iseq/lessonplans.htm.
  3. Verma, V.K., P.K. Sharma, L.B. Patel, D.C. Loshali, & G.S. Toor. 2000. Natural resource management for sustainable development using remote sensing technology - a case study. National Natural Resources Management System, 24, 41-49.

 

LAB INFO

Lab Instruments: the following instruments to analyze nutrient and various isotopes in soil, sediment, plant, water samples are available in our lab:

  • Lachat for nutrient analysis (nitrogen, phosphorus species) in extracted samples from soil and sediment, and water samples

  • Shimadzu TOC/L for analysis of DOC, TOC, TDN, and TN in water samples

  • Delta V Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer, with EA, Gas Bench, Denitification Kit for analysis of:

    • total carbon, total nitrogen, 13C, 15N in solid soil, sediment, and plant samples

    • dD and 18O/16O in water samples

    • dO of phosphate in water, solid extract samples

    • 15N and 18O of nitrate in water samples

Current Team Members.

  • Dr. Yun-Ya Yang, Principal Faculty Specialist (2018-current)
  • Dr. Shuiwang Duan, Assistant Research Scientist (2019-current)
  • Taylor Roswall, M.S. Student, Environmental Science and Technology (2019-current)
  • Stanley Schlosnagle, Agricultural Technician Supervisor (2017-current)

TEACHING

I am actively involved in teaching, advising, and mentoring students and visiting students and scientists. Teaching is important to me for two reasons. First, I am eager to educate students and scholars about the complex interactions between soil processes, nutrients, water quality, and environmental sustainability. Second, soil and water are one of our most important natural resources; thus, all forms of soil and water pollution need to be prevented or corrected.

My goal as a teacher is to synthesize, evaluate, and integrate latest research findings to introduce students to a variety of topics in the subject matter. My goal as an academic advisor is to provide students with the necessary skills and knowledge that will allow them to become outstanding professionals and productive members of society.

    Previous Teaching. I have taught various classes over 10+ years of academic career at the University of Florida. Some of these include:

    • SWS 4204, Urban Soil and Water Systems
    • SWS 6209, Advanced Urban Soil and Water Systems
    • SWS 3022L, Introduction to Soils in the Environment Lab
    • SWS 6905, Special Problems
    • SWS 6910, Supervised Teaching
    • SWS 6971, Masters Research
    • SWS 7979, Advanced Research
    • SWS 7980, Doctoral Research

    Former Students. I have advised and graduated 5 Ph.D. students and 13 M.S. students at the University of Florida.

    PhD Students:

    1. Jariani Jani, Ph.D. Student, Soil and Water Science, 2018. Currently Researcher at University of Malaya, Malaysia
    2. Mary Lusk, Ph.D. Student, Soil and Water Science, 2015. Currently Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, University of Florida, Balm, FL
    3. Mriganka De, Ph.D. Student, Soil and Water Science, 2015. Currently Post-doctoral Researcher at Iowa State University, Ames, IA
    4. Ignacio Rodriguez, Ph.D. Student, Interdisciplinary Ecology, 2014. Currently Executive Director of Wetland Center at University of Chile, Valdivia, Chile
    5. Manmeet Waria, Ph.D. Student, Soil and Water Science, 2011. Currently Senior Scientist at Orange County Water District, Los Angeles, CA

    MS Students:

    1. Kristi Dobra, M.S. Student, Soil and Water Science, 2018. Currently Senior Project Manager, US Army Corps, Pittsburgh, PA
    2. Stefan Kalev, M.S. Student, Soil and Water Science, 2017. Currently Environmental Scientist, Charlotte County, FL
    3. Matthew Jablonski, M.S. Student, Soil and Water Science, 2017. Currently Supervisor at South Florida Water Management District, Brooksville, FL
    4. Michael Mertens, M.S. Student, Soil and Water Science, 2017. Currently Staff at Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Orlando, FL
    5. Natasha Darre, M.S. Student, Soil and Water Science, 2017. Currently Staff at NASA Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, FL
    6. Sara Mechtensimer, M.S. Student, Soil and Water Science, 2015. Currently Environmental Specialist at Florida Power and Light, West Palm Beach, FL
    7. Josefin Edeback-Hirst, M.S. Student, Soil and Water Science, 2015. Currently Senior Environmental Engineer, Hazen & Sawyer, Tampa, FL
    8. Bethzaida Colon, M.S. Student, Soil and Water Science, 2015. Currently Consultant at US AID, Washington DC
    9. Stephanie McLean, M.S. Student, Soil and Water Science, 2015. Currently Environmental Consultant, Atlanta, GA
    10. Marti Occhipinti, M.S. Student, Soil and Water Science, 2012. Currently in NC
    11. Kamaljit Banger, M.S. Student, Soil and Water Science, 2010. Currently Post-doctoral Researcher at University of Guelph, Canada
    12. Maninder Chahal, M.S. Student, Soil and Water Science, 2010. Currently Ph.D. Student at Washington State University, Pullman, WA
    13. Lori Clark, M.S. Student, Soil and Water Science, 2008. Currently Staff at Washington State Department of Ecology, WA